Author Archives: Jake Macfarlane

Utah water-use data study underway

Two Utah engineering firms are partnering to improve the quality of water-use data in the state.  The firms will use a $300,000 contract with the state to analyze how the Division of Water Resources can improve its data collection.

Water-use data is more important than ever

Utah is one of the driest states in the nation; usually only second to Nevada.  With a population that is expected to nearly double by 2060, meeting Utah’s growing water needs is a major concern.  Water-use data is paramount to project water needs in the decades to come.  Improving data collection can help Utah manage its limited resources.

However, a 2015 Legislative audit found that a patchwork of 475 community water systems were not always accountable or accurate in submitting water-use data.  Records showed that one community in the Bear River basin had not reported any data since 2002.  Other communities failed to break out categories for water use, relied on estimates when meters were unavailable, or simply got calculations wrong.

 Efforts to improve water-use data collection

Since then, state legislators have acted to give regulators more power to force systems to report.  In 2016 the Division of Water Rights received additional funding to put an employee in the field.  The goal is to work with public water providers to encourage reporting and identify obstacles.  Additionally, Utah lawmakers directed the Division of Drinking Water to develop a point system.  Water providers are assessed points if they fail to report water-use data, or if the data is falsified.  With enough points, the water system could be deemed unsafe.

Improving water-use data will also help the state develop new water resources.  Utah is working to initiate two large water development projects.  The Lake Powell pipeline and plans to divert water from Bear River could help with Utah’s water demands.  However both plans have met with some resistance.  The high cost and potential environmental concerns have brought the projects under close scrutiny.  Governor Gary Herbert has made it clear that improving water-use data collecting is a prerequisite to large water resource development.

Both engineering firms are helping the Division of Water Resources analyze the 2015 data. They are expected to present a report to the division sometime in December.  The report should help Utah revisit those numbers and improve collection of water-use data going forward.


Federal court upholds state’s right to stop natural gas pipeline under the Clean Water Act

Pipes for the Constitution Pipeline are stacked at a pipe yard in Altamont, NY in 2014

Last Friday the Second Circuit Court of Appeals sided with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (“NYSDEC”) and their denial of a § 401 certificate under the U.S. Clean Water Act to Constitution Pipeline (a partnership among Cabot Oil & Gas Corp.; Oklahoma-based energy company Williams Cos.; Piedmont Natural Gas; and WGL).

Denying Constitution Pipeline’s application effectively vetoed a $750 million plan for a 124-mile pipeline stretching from the Marcellus shale deposits in Pennsylvania to the Iroquois pipeline in New York state, and eventually feeding the supply-choked Northeast region in  with natural gas.  Although Constitution obtained various permits from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (“FERC”) over the last five years in order to proceed with the project, they failed to satisfy NYSDEC’s requests for environmental impact accommodations on each of the 251 New York water bodies the pipeline would have traversed.

Pipeline developers ‘shot themselves in the foot’ by fumbling the state environmental review

The Second Circuit specifically noted in its decision that Constitution had failed to address water resource impacts despite the state’s repeated requests for more information.  Much of the Court’s decision hung on the company’s failure to consider alternative routes, less harmful stream crossing methods, and other information the state needed for its environmental review.

Constitution argued that it provided “sufficient” information since trenchless crossing methods for streams less than 30 feet wide was not “an industry recognized standard”.  The court rejected this argument, stating that, “[i]ndustry preferences do not circumscribe environmental relevance.”  The decision upheld NYSDEC’s denial based on Constitution’s failure to provide the extra water impact information requested.  The case clearly signaled that states have a right to halt pipeline projects over environmental concerns – even when the project has otherwise been given federal approval.

Wider impact on state control under Clean Water Act remains to be seen

Under the U.S. Natural Gas Act, FERC has authority to approve the construction of interstate natural gas pipelines.  However, Section 401 of the Clean Water Act requires that certain federally licensed projects gain state permits for environmental reasons.  Up to this point, FERC has been somewhat slow to accept that states have veto power of federal licenses.  Friday’s unanimous decision, while not binding on the rest of the country, is a strong indication of how other circuits might rule.

The Second Circuit specifically stated that the § 401 certification is:

… a statutory scheme whereby a single state agency effectively vetoes an energy pipeline that has secured approval from a host of other federal and state agencies … Through [the § 401 certification] requirement, Congress intended that the states would retain the power to block, for environmental reasons, local water projects that might otherwise win federal approval. 

Constitution also argued that NYSDEC’s delay constituted a waiver of the state’s right to deny the certification.  This argument was dismissed by the Circuit Court because jurisdiction over that decision falls to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.  In June the DC Circuit decided a similar issue of waiver and told the pipeline developer that state agency delay of over a year can allow developers to bypass the state and go straight to FERC.

The Second Circuit’s decision comes as the state of Virginia is holding public hearings on § 401 certificates for the Atlantic Coast and Mountain Valley pipelines.  While state regulators have vowed to asses construction impacts and “ensure that water quality is maintained into the future,” many are now keeping a close watch on Capitol Hill as the energy bill moves through the U.S. Senate.  The decision could result in increased pressure on members of Congress to explicitly strip states of their newfound authority under federal law.

If you are involved in a legal dispute involving these or any other water law issue, contact  the experienced attorneys at Christensen & Jensen and avoid pitfalls both before, during, and after litigation.

Source: 2nd Circuit Decision May Not Mark the End of NY Pipeline Battle | New York Law Journal


Long fought water pipeline dispute over Nevada-Utah state line will finally get a federal hearing

Category : Uncategorized

A years-long fight over a plan to build a water pipeline along the Nevada-Utah state line to bring groundwater to Las Vegas is about to get a first-ever hearing before a federal judge in Nevada.  The pipeline could cost billions of dollars to build, but the Southern Nevada Water Authority says it may become essential if drought keeps shrinking the Lake Mead reservoir on the Colorado River which supplies 90% of Las Vegas’ drinking water.

State and federal go-aheads brought challenges in state and federal courts from environmentalists, activists, local governments in rural towns in the two counties, plus the Duckwater and Ely Shoshone tribes and the Confederated Tribes of the Goshute Reservation in Utah.

No tribe in the area was properly consulted and none signed off on the plan, Rovianne Leigh, attorney for the Goshutes said Monday.  She described tribal elders’ fears that a meadow wetland in Spring Valley will go dry.  The site is revered and used in sacred ceremonies, and remembered as the site of massacres 150 years ago.

Environmental studies for the project took eight years before the bureau in December 2012 granted permission for the pipeline to cross 263 miles of federal land, but does not have a say in how much water is pumped.  The Southern Nevada Water Authority tried to provide assurances that “if there wasn’t enough water, the state’s top water official wouldn’t approve the rights to pump.”

For help with complex legal matters involving water, come to a firm with experience and expertise.  Contact Christensen & Jensen.

 

Source: – Capital Press


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